hand pain and problems (2023)

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hand anatomy

The hand is made up of many different bones, muscles, and ligaments that allow for a great deal of movement and dexterity. There are 3 main types of bones in the hand itself, including:

  • phalanges.The 14 bones found in the fingers of each hand and also in the toes of each foot. Each finger has 3 phalanges (distal, middle and proximal); The thumb only has 2.

  • metacarpianos.The 5 bones that make up the middle part of the hand.

  • carpal bonesThe 8 bones that make up the wrist. The carpal bones are connected to 2 bones in the arm, the ulnar bone and the radius bone.

There are numerous muscles, ligaments, and sheaths in the hand. Muscles are the structures that can contract, allowing the bones in the hand to move. Ligaments are fibrous tissues that help hold the joints of the hand together. The sheaths are tubular structures that wrap part of the fingers.

What are some common hand problems?

There are many common hand problems that can affect activities of daily living (ADLs), including:


ArthritisIt is an inflammation of the joints and can occur in different areas of the hand and wrist. Osteoarthritis of the hand can be very painful.

A condition that can affect joints throughout the body, rheumatoid arthritis typically affects the surrounding joints and tendons in the wrist and fingers. It can cause joints to become swollen, painful, and possibly misshapen. This can affect the normal function of the hand. It can significantly affect a person's quality of life.


osteoarthritisIt is one of the most common forms of arthritis in the hands and can be caused by normal use of the hand or it can develop after an injury. Osteoarthritis usually develops in one of three places: at the base of the thumb, at the distal joint closest to the fingertip, or at the medial joint of a finger.

The signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis are:

  • rigidity

  • swelling and pain

  • Bone nodules in the middle or end joints of the finger

  • Pain and possibly swelling at the base of the thumb

  • Loss of grip strength in fingers and hands.

Osteoarthritis treatment includes:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  • rest of affected hand

  • Wearing splints at night

  • Heat application for pain relief.

  • Use ice to reduce swelling.

  • Possible cortisone injections

  • Possible surgery if no other treatment works

Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative arthritis, is a degenerative disease that commonly affects the small joints of the fingers and the base of the thumb. Joint swelling, stiffness, and pain can occur in both men and women. It often leads to enlargement of the joints, which affects the normal function of the hand and significantly affects the quality of life of a person. There are two main types of arthritis in the hands: primary generalized arthritis and erosive arthritis, which affect the hands differently.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndromeCarpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which the median nerve is compressed as it passes through the carpal tunnel in the wrist, a narrow, narrow space. Because the median nerve provides sensory and motor functions to the thumb and three middle fingers, many symptoms can occur. Below are the most common symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. However, each person's symptoms may be different. Symptoms may include:

  • Difficulty holding objects

  • Pain or numbness in the hand(s)

  • tingling fingers

  • feeling of swelling in the fingers

  • Burning or tingling in the fingers, especially the thumb and index and middle fingers

The symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome may resemble those of other conditions, such as tendinitis, bursitis, or rheumatoid arthritis. Always ask your doctor for a diagnosis.

Treatment may include:

  • Hand splint (to prevent movement of the wrist and reduce compression of the nerve in the tunnel)

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs, oral or injected (into the carpal tunnel space) (to reduce swelling)

  • Surgery (to relieve nerve compression in the carpal tunnel)

  • Changing the position of a computer keyboard or other ergonomic changes

This condition is painful compression of a nerve in the wrist that can affect a person's ability to use the wrist and hand. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a progressive condition that can worsen without proper care.

ganglion cysts

Soft, fluid-filled cysts can develop on the front or back of the hand for no apparent reason. These are called ganglion cysts, the most common benign (non-cancerous) tumor of the soft tissues of the hand and wrist.

The following are the most common symptoms of ganglion cysts. However, each person's symptoms may be different. Symptoms may include:

  • Wrist pain that worsens with repeated use or irritation

  • A localized, slow-growing swelling with mild pain and weakness in the wrist

  • An obvious cyst that is smooth, firm, rounded, or soft

The symptoms of ganglion cysts may resemble those of other diseases or problems. Always ask your doctor for a diagnosis.

If the cyst is small and painless at first, treatment is usually not needed. Treatment is usually only necessary when the cyst begins to grow and affect the functionality of the hand. Treatment may include:

  • Rest

  • spoken

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  • Aspiration

  • cortisone injection

  • Operation

A ganglion is a fluid-filled sac that forms like a herniation of a joint capsule or tendon sheath. The sac is attached to the joint or tendon sheath by a "rod" that allows fluid from the joint or sheath to pass into the bursa. The wand works like a valve and often limits the flow of fluid from the cyst, allowing the cyst to grow but not shrink. In some cases, the stem acts as a two-way valve, allowing fluid to flow in both directions. This can cause the cyst to grow and shrink depending on activity.

tendon problems

Two major tendon-related problems are tendonitis and tenosynovitis. Tendonitis Tendonitis (the tough strands of tissue that connect muscle to bone) can affect any tendon, but is most common in the wrist and fingers. When tendons become irritated, swelling, pain, and discomfort result.

Wrist pain and tendinitis | Frequently asked questions with Dr. Huelga de Sofia

Tenosynovitis is inflammation of the lining of the tendon sheaths that surround the tendons. The tendon sheath is usually the site that becomes inflamed, but both the tendon sheath and the tendon can become inflamed at the same time. The cause of tenosynovitis is usually unknown, but stress, overuse, injury, or excessive exercise can usually play a role. Inflammation of the tendons can also be related to diseases (such as diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis).

Common tendon disorders include the following:

  • Epicondylitis laterally(commonly known as tennis elbow).A condition characterized by pain in the back of the elbow and forearm along the side of the thumb when the arm is at the side of the body and the thumb points out. The pain is caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist backward away from the palm.

  • Epikondilit medial(commonly known as golfer's or baseball elbow).A condition characterized by pain from the elbow to the wrist in the palm of the forearm. The pain is caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist toward the palm.

  • Rotator cuff tendonitis.Shoulder disease characterized by inflammation of the shoulder capsule and associated tendons.

  • DeQuervain-Tenosynovitis.The most common type of disease is tenosynovitis, characterized by inflammation of the tendon sheath in the tendons of the thumb.

  • Trigger finger/trigger thumb.A condition of tenosynovitis in which the tendon sheath becomes inflamed and thickened, preventing smooth extension or flexion of the finger/thumb. The finger/thumb can suddenly bind or "shoot".

Treatment for most tendon problems may include:

  • change of activity

  • It is

  • ferrule or immobilization

  • steroid injections

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  • Operation

Hand arthritis | bill's story

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